Under the Paris Agreement, each country must regularly identify, plan and report on its contribution to the fight against global warming.  There is no mechanism requiring a country to set a specific emission target on a specific date, but each target should go beyond the targets set previously. The United States officially withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would join the agreement after his inauguration.  While increasing the ambitions of NDCs is an important goal of the global stocktake, it assesses efforts that go beyond containment. The 5-year reviews will also assess adaptation, climate finance regulations, and technology development and transfer.  Yes, there is a broad consensus in the scientific community, although some deny that climate change is a problem, including politicians in the United States. When negotiating teams come together for international climate negotiations, there is “less skepticism about science and more disagreement about how to set priorities,” says David Victor, a professor of international relations at the University of California, San Diego. The basic science is this: President Obama has correctly adhered to the Paris Agreement through an “Executive Agreement.” The United States most often accedes to international agreements through executive agreements, not by signing treaties that require Senate deliberation and approval. At the 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) was established with the aim of negotiating a legal instrument for climate action from 2020 onwards. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.
 However, scientists point out that the Paris Agreement needs to be intensified if it is to have any chance of mitigating dangerous climate change. Among other things, countries must report on their greenhouse gas inventories and progress towards their targets so that external experts can assess their success. Countries should also reconsider their commitments by 2020 and set new targets every five years, with the aim of further reducing emissions. They must participate in a “global stocktaking” to measure collective efforts to achieve the long-term goals of the Paris Agreement. In the meantime, developed countries must also estimate the amount of financial assistance they will provide to developing countries to help them reduce their emissions and adapt to the effects of climate change. The long-term temperature objective of the Paris Agreement is to keep global average temperature rise well below 2°C (3.6°F) above pre-industrial levels; and strive to limit the increase to 1.5°C (2.7°F), recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change. This goal should be achieved by reducing emissions as quickly as possible in order to achieve “a balance between anthropogenic emissions from sources and removals of greenhouse gases by sinks” in the second half of the 21st century. It also aims to improve the parties` ability to adapt to the negative impacts of climate change and balance “financial flows with a trajectory towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development”. While the expanded transparency framework is universal, as is the global stocktake that takes place every 5 years, the framework is designed to provide “built-in flexibility” to distinguish the capacities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The Agreement takes into account the different situations of certain countries and notes in particular that the review by technical experts for each country takes into account the specific reporting capacity of that country.  The agreement also develops a transparency capacity building initiative to help developing countries put in place the institutions and procedures necessary to comply with the transparency framework.
 The UN report warns that the terrible effects of climate change will occur sooner than expected. Here`s why we need to follow the report`s advice and why every ton of emissions reduction can make a difference. .